Guidelines for producing a Reference Appendix for Studies of Music in the 21st Century

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Philip Tagg: Guidelines for producing a Reference Appendix for Studies of Music in the 21st Century
Huddersfield: The Mass Media Music Scholars’ Press
Version 2.2, 2015-09-29

1.1. Terms and conventions

• ‘You’ is the pronoun used to address the author of a text about music who needs to reference the wide variety of different types of source material available in the early twenty-first century.

• By work or source work, etc. is meant the work to which you refer in your text.

• By intext reference or intext citation is meant reference from your main body of text (or footnotes) to your reference appendix.

• By location is meant a particular point in a source work to which you refer, typically in terms of page number, bar number or timecode placement.

I have chosen to use the format |Author/Composer/Artist (Year)| in the reference appendix because it more closely resembles the Harvard-style formatting of intext citations.

1.2. Aim and scope

The aim of this text is to propose viable referencing norms for academic writing about music today (see §4). It does not cover the well-established academic practices for referencing verbal hard copy.

2. Rationale

2.1. What’s the problem?

If you write scholarly texts about music in the modern world you’ll sooner or later have to refer to source materials of several types, including:

• written verbal text as hard copy;

• write verbal text on line (books, articles, blogs, song lyrics, etc.);

• audio carriers and files (singles, LPs, CDs, audio files, etc.);

• audiovisual carriers and files (DVDs, video downloads, etc.);

• off-air recordings (radio, TV, streamed programming);

• video games

• musical notation (sheet music, scores, song books, online chord charts, etc.),

Conventional academic practice is to generate separate reference appendices following categories that are not thematic (based on type of content) but determined by: [i] storage technology, [ii] symbolic system, and [iii] degree of previously established scholarly acceptance.

Distinguishing between the published written word (‘the bibliography’, often misleadingly referred to as ‘References’) and other types of information (discography, filmography, etc.) may have had its uses when such categories of source material were relatively clear and consistent. But with the proliferation of media technologies and modes of publication, particularly in the digital age, and with the inclusion of popular cultures as legitimate fields of study, the separation of source materials into the sorts of category listed above has become not just a historical oddity but also a cumbersome, confusing and user-unfriendly anomaly. For example, if I read the reference “Human X (2005)” in the main body of text or in a footnote, to which of several appendices do I turn to discover its source details? Is it listed in the bibliography as an academically legitimate text, or is it Human X’s blog or Facebook page? Or is it a magazine article, or audio he/she produced for a video game? Or is it a radio interview, or a TV documentary on DVD, or a YouTube video? Then, even if I can deduce that “Human X (2005)” refers to, say, a radio interview rather than to an article in a learned journal, how am I supposed to know if radio interviews are grouped with off-air recordings under ‘Audio recordings’, or ‘Audiovisual recordings’, or under ‘Interviews’?

Similar confusion arises if audio recordings, music videos and sheet music publications are listed in different appendices:. Where do I find details for, say, “Bach (1727)”? Is it listed under printed scores, or as an audio cd, or a broadcast or live performance, or is it on a dvd? Or has the author used both score and recordings? If so, do I have to check in two different appendices for those two references to the same work?

The same basic problem occurs if read a reference like “Star Wars (1977)”. Are its source details listed in a separate filmography, or with other dvds or videocassettes as a videogram, or under ‘Audiovisual recordings’ together with both phonograms and videograms? Or is it a soundtrack album listed in the audio-only discography? And which appendix contains references to a video game distributed on its own carrier, or played on line?

These logistic problems are compounded by an implicit hierarchy of symbolic systems and their degree of historically established acceptance in academe. It is a logocentric, scopocentric hierarchy in which the written word is assumed to be the prime bearer of knowledge. That is a highly questionable epistemological assumption. Audio and audiovisual documents, be they verbal or non-verbal, need to be treated on a par with the written word as sources of ideas and information, even if they mediate different types of knowledge in different ways.

If, as scholars writing about sound and music in the modern world, we are happy to confuse readers and to waste their time, and if we still believe that the written word trumps all other modalities of mediating knowledge, then we’ll probably choose to do nothing. But if we want to help readers and to pass down a more equitable, more rational set of scholarly practices to our students, then we’ll need to act.

2.2. ‘Solutions’ and solutions

The old Oxford system of referencing has one advantage in that each reference can be footnoted unequivocally and in full detail each time it occurs. That lets readers know immediately what sort of source document is being referred to. The trouble is that you, the writer, must either duplicate complete publishing details each time you refer to the same work (a space-consuming operation), or, if you later abbreviate reference to that work as just |Author (Year)| or ‘loc. cit.’, or ‘op. cit.’, you lumber readers with the task of searching for the original reference in earlier footnotes or in the bibliography, or in whichever other appendix it’s included. In short, this partial solution to one problem causes another and does not solve the issue of separate reference appendices. So, let’s stick with the Harvard |Author (Year)| format.

One advantage with the Harvard system is that whatever precedes the year in brackets can be either an author, e.g. ‘Frith (1996)’, or a composer, e.g. ‘Morricone (1986)’, or a recording artist, e.g. ‘Adele (2011)’, or the name of a film, e.g. ‘The Mission (1986)’, etc. With familiar names like Frith, Morricone, Adele and The Mission, confusion about which reference appendix to consult is less likely than if I want to discover documentation about, say, Axt (1926), Barron (2007) or Bowlly (1933), not to mention CSI (2000) or CSI (2010), not to mention Brown (1970), Brown (1995) or Brown (2000). There are two ways of dealing with this problem. [1] If you insist on classifying references according to the sort of categories discussed earlier you’ll mark each |Author (Year)| reference in the main body of text and footnotes with some sort of flag notifying the reader as to which of your appendices contains the relevant source documentation details. [2] You can put all references into one and the same appendix and there add the requisite symbol[s] indicating storage mode and authorial function (author, editor, composer, arranger, performer, lyricist, developer, etc., see Table 1, p. 8).

Since criteria governing which appendix categories should be used are neither universal nor, with ongoing technological change, likely to remain constant, the least illogical solution is to put all references into one single appendix. The rest of this text assumes opting for that second solution.

2.3. Known issues with a single reference appendix

So far I’ve heard three objections to the single reference appendix.

1. It doesn’t look serious. Seeing “Hegel, G. W. F. (1810/1955)” between “Hayes, I. (1970)” and “Hell’s Angels (1967)” makes it look as if the theme from Shaft and the biker B-movie Hell’s Angels on Wheels have the same value as Hegel’s Aesthetics.

2. It goes too radically against all standard practice. Even if it’s a good idea, academics will never change their ways.

3. I want to be able to check through all audio recordings (or all films, or all learned texts, or all games) mentioned in the text. If they’re not in a separate appendix, they’re difficult to find.

Objections 1 and 2 express a conservative attitude to studies of contemporary culture and an unawareness of the demands that such studies make on the reform of old academic habits. Objection 3, on the other hand, is reasonable. Even so, the problem can be overcome by introducing Michelin-Guide-style icons to indicate media type, storage form and authorial function (Table 1). These space-saving symbols can be used in the main text, including footnotes, as well as in the reference appendix. A downloadable font set containing such symbols (XPTSymbols1.ttf) and an overview of their placement on a QWERTY keyboard are available on line. For example, if you’re looking for audio recordings only, you just scan the reference appendix for 0QWERTY or H (perhaps also for w, L or even g).

Table 1: Suggestions for space-saving icons in a single reference appendix

F film production n musical notation b written word

t TV production c composer[s] o cover version

w off-air recording C conductor P first published

D DVD v vocalist[s] R 1st recorded

V videocassette m performer[s] $ advert

E YouTube j writer or lyricist T title theme

G on line f film director H audio example

g video/computer game * star, actor S section/paragraph

0 phonogram p publisher

L audiocassette Ä arranger > see …

The legibility and space-saving advantage of such icons is considerable. Compare, for example these two entries for the same work:

Morricone, Ennio (1986: composer, arranger, conductor) The Mission (dir. Roland Joffé; Goldcrest films, distr. Warner); DVD Warner 23497 (2003); soundtrack on CD Virgin V2402 (1986)

0 Morricone, Ennio (1986) cÄC The Mission Virgin V2402 F Goldcrest/Warner f Roland Joffé D Warner 23497 (2003).

See also the reference appendix to this text (p. 23) for a basic idea of how those symbols can work.

3. Guidelines for single-appendix referencing

3.1. URL indication and abbreviation G

This section deals with the referencing of online sources using web addresses or URLs (Uniform Resource Locators).

3.1.1. URLs in digital and hard-copy texts

If your text is only available in digital form and is not intended to be read as hard copy, URLs present no problem because hyperlinks can be embedded invisibly. For example, if you’re reading this on line, the text ‘check this!’ contains an active hyperlink to my website. However, if what you’re writing is intended to be read as hard copy you’ll need to make the hyperlink visible as text, e.g. ‘www.tagg.org’.

3.1.2. Abbreviating URL references

URLs can be notoriously long. If your text is to be distributed in hard copy, or if you want to let your readers cut and paste web addresses from your text, you’ll need to confront the issue of presenting URL references as clearly and concisely as possible. Here are a few suggestions.

1. Use a smaller or narrower font to economise on page space.

2. Use a different font style so that readers can easily distinguish a URL from the text surrounding it.

3. Replace URL prefixes http://, https://, http://www., etc. with a single-character glyph. I suggest the download character G , as in ’ G tagg.org’ (9 characters) instead of ‘http://www.tagg.org’ (19 chars.).

4. Although URL shortening services like shorturl.com and goo.gl seem quite useful, they can be vulnerable to spam and spyware attacks. It may be advisable to restrict this kind of URL shortening to excessively long URLs only.

3.1.3. Abbreviating access dates

Due to the ephemerality of many websites, dates of access to those sites must be included in references to online data. In academic texts you’ll often see clumsy expressions like ‘site accessed 21st January 2015’. That’s unnecessarily verbose (32 characters). It’s more than adequate to express the date as a string of six characters, formatted yymmdd and delimited by square brackets or braces, e.g. ‘[150121]’ or ‘{150121}’ (8 characters, including brackets, four times shorter).

3.2. Written verbal text b

3.2.1. Hard-copy verbal texts b

Hard-copy verbal texts (books, articles, etc.) should be referred to using established academic practice.

3.2.2. E-books and articles b G

3.2.2.1. PDFs

Online texts in PDF format can be listed in the reference appendix using established academic practice. They do, however, require their appropriate web reference, for example:

b Tagg, P; Clarida, R (2003) Ten Little Title Tunes. New York & Montréal: Mass Media Music Scholars’ Press G tagg.org/mmmsp/10Titles.html [130510].

Since pdfs, whether published and isbn/ean-registered or not, are page laid like hard-copy texts, intext location in the source work is referred to by page number, e.g. ‘Tagg & Clarida (2003: 415)’.

3.2.2.2. E-books

E-books are read on both tiny smartphone displays and on full-size computer monitors. This means that page numbers aren’t the most intuitive intext reference location option. However, book-reading software on a tablet (e.g. Kindle, Google Play) lets you view your current location in the book as an absolute page number, even if that number doesn’t correspond to how many display ‘pages’ you may have turned to arrive at that location on your device. For example, let’s say you want to criticise bourgeois notions of idealism in nineteenth-century Europe and that, on the 10th of May 2013 (130510), you came across the following passage when reading the public-domain Kindle version of Stendahl’s Le rouge et le noir on your tablet.

‘[L]a première vocation pour ces petits gens, c’est d’avoir du pain.’

Touching your tablet’s screen at that point in the novel reveals the message ‘p 115 of 450, location 1800 of 7150 (25%)’. Your intext reference could then be either ‘Stendahl (1830: 115)’, or ‘Stendahl (1830, p. 115)’. The source work for that precisely located intext reference could then be listed as follows in the reference appendix.

b Stendahl (Marie-Henri Beyle, 1830) Le rouge et le noir. Project Gutenberg, Kindle public domain G gutenberg.org/ebooks/798 [130510].

3.2.2.3. Other text formats

To ensure that readers see the same pagination as you intended in a Word document produced for online viewing, you should ideally export the file to pdf and upload it in that format. This step will guarantee that others provide correct intext reference by page number to your work. When making intext reference by page number to an online Word document by another author you have no choice but to assume that the page numbers you see are those intended by the author.

No normal page numbering exists in html, asp, php and txt files. If online works in those file formats do not include paragraph numbering, no unequivocal intext location indication is possible. In your document you can only refer to the source file by its url and your readers will have to search the document to check for specifics.

3.2.2.4. Online verbal text listing in the appendix — html, doc, pdf

— For example —

b Fink, Bob (1997) ‘Neanderthal Flute… Evidence of Natural Foundation to Diatonic Scale: Musicological Analysis’

G greenwych.ca/fl-compl.htm [120909].

b Fraser, Rémi (2005) ‘A Beautiful Mind: cue list’ (student assignment, film music analysis, Faculté de musique, Université de Montréal) G tagg.org/udem/musimgmot/etudiants/RemiFraser1.doc [130510].

b Hughes, Susan M; Dispenza, Franco; Gallup, Gordon Jr. (2004) ‘Ratings of voice attractiveness predict sexual behavior’; Evolution and Human Behavior, 25: 295–304 G columbia.edu/itc/psychology/rmk/Readings/Hughes.pdf [050423].

3.3. Music as notation n

Intext reference to location in musical notation as source work is by bar number and/or page number, e.g. ‘Bach (1722: 56, b. 24)’, ‘Bach (1722, p. 56)’.

3.3.1. Euroclassical or named-composer works in hard copy

Standard formatting in the reference appendix is as follows. Please note that generic titles of euroclassical works —quartet, symphony, sonata, concerto, etc.— are not italicised.

n Composer Name (year of composition or first performance) Title of work or Generic title [type of score if not full orchestral]. Publication place: Publishers (Publication year if different from year of first appearance).

— For example —

n Bach, J. S. (1722) Das wohltemperiertes Klavier Band I. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel (n.d.).

n Bartók, B (1927) String Quartet III. Vienna: Universal Edition (1929).

n Bernstein, L. (1957) West Side Story [vocal score] New York: Chappell.

3.3.2. Songs

Songs in collections/anthologies

n Composer Name (Year of composition/first performance) ‘Song Title’. Title of collection ([editor(s)]: page location in collection. Place of publication: Publishers (Year of collection’s publication)|.

— For example —

n ‘The Rocky Road To Dublin’ (n.d., trad.). Irish Street Ballads, ed. Colm O’Lochlainn: 102-103. London: Pan (1978; P Dublin, 1939).

n Russell, Henry (1837) ‘Woodman Spare That Tree’. The Parlour Song Book, ed. M. R. Turner, A. Miall: 146-149. London: Michael Joseph (1972).

n Schubert, F. (1827) ‘Der Leiermann’ from ‘Winterreise’. Schubert Album Band I (Hohe Stimme). New York, London, Frankfurt: Peters (n.d.).

3.3.2.1. Individually published songs

n Composer and/or Lyricist (Year of composition/first performance). Title of Song. Place of publication: Publishers (Publ. yr., if different).

— For example —

n Porter, C. (1936) I’ve Got You Under My Skin. New York: Harms Inc.

3.3.2.2. Named collections of printed music

n Name of Publication (Year of Publication) [editor(s) / earlier editions].

Place of publication: Publishers

— For example —

n Congregational Praise (1950). London: Independent Press Ltd.

n Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (1963), ed. J. A. Fuller Maintland and W. Barclay Squire from early 17th-century original. New York: Dover (facsimile of P Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1899).

n Songs that will Live for Ever (n.d.) ed. M. Jacobson. London: Odhams.

3.3.3. Musical notation on line n G

References are formatted as for printed notation except that publishing details are either replaced or supplemented by URL referencing.

— For example —

n Tomkins, Thomas (1622) ‘Turn unto the Lord’ (Songs of 3, 4, 5 and 6 parts) G www0.cpdl.org/wiki/images/2/2d/Tomkins_Turn_unto_the_Lord.pdf [120617].

3.4. Audio recordings 0

For off-air sources, see §3.5.4, p. 19.

3.4.1. General points

• Default headword is the source work’s ‘main author’.

• Composers are usually ‘main authors’ in recordings of euroclassical works, or of film and TV music. Performing artists (‘acts’) are usually ‘main authors’ (singer, band, etc.) in recordings of most types of popular music.

• If no ‘main author’ is known, the song or album title becomes headword.

• In what follows ‘Record Label’ is abbreviated to ‘Label’ and ‘Catalogue number’ to ‘cat. #’.

• Label and catalogue number data for many audio recordings is available through G discogs.com.

• Intext location is indicated by timecode placement in the source work, for example: ‘the key change at 1:07 (Police, 1986)’, listed in the reference appendix as:

0 Police, The (1986) Don’t Stand So Close To Me. A&M am 354.

3.4.2. Types of audio recordings 0

3.4.2.1. Singles

0 Name of Band or Artist (Year) Title of Single or 12 Inch (c Composer, if known). Label and cat. #.

— For example —

0 Disease (1987) Sackcloth Turns Me On. Student Gothorama 567S.~

0 Eczema (2003) Love Glitzit remix #4. White label CD, Manchester.~11

3.4.2.2. Tracks on albums

0 Artist, [Forename or Initial(s) or definite article] (Year) ‘Title of Track’ (Composer, if known). Name of Album. Label, cat. #.

— For example —

0 Bottles, The (1963) ‘Shove Me, Do’ (Leprechaun, McPhartney). With the Bottles. Wafflaphone WCS 7826.~11

0 Funky Fred (1976) ‘Grit Me Baby’. Put a Sock in it. Soulglow Records SLGLW 12345.~11

3.4.2.3. Albums (known artists)

0 Artist (Year) Title of album. Label, cat. #.

— For example —

0 Bottles, The (1963) With the Bottles. Wafflaphone WCS 7826. ~11

0 Funky Fred (1976) Put a Sock in it. Soulglow Records SLGLW 12345.~11

3.4.2.4. Albums (unknown or various artists)

0 Title of album (Year). Label, cat. #.

— For example —

0 Top Cross-Dress Hits of the 80s (1994). Thatcherphone 9-C10078.~

3.4.2.5. Reissues and cover versions 0 P o

If you are referring to is a reissue or a cover version, such information should be included, for example:

0 Mothers of Invention, The (1966) Freak Out. Kama Sutra

2683 004; also Zappa Records cdzap1 (1987).

0 Rota, Nino (1974) c ‘Romeo and Juliet’ (film theme P 1966) om The Tony Hatch Orchestra. Hit the Road to Themeland. Pye NSPL 41029.

3.4.2.6. Theme tune or title music on an album 0 T

Either:

0 Composer, Forename [or initial(s)] (Year of 1st publication, i.e. when first heard on TV or released as a movie) ‘Track Title’. Name of Album. Label, cat. # (Year of record’s release if different to that of TV show/film).

or:

0 Artist, Forename [or initial(s) or def. article] (Year) ‘Title of Track’ (c Composer, if known) Name of Album. Label, cat. #.

— For example —

0 Davis, Miles (1957) ‘Ascenseur pour l’échaffaud’ - générique T Twenty Original Soundtracks, Vol. 3, Yesterday Gold YDG 74641 (1989).

0 Montenegro, Hugh (1966) ‘The Man from U.N.C.L.E.’ T This is Cult Fiction. Virgin VTCD 59 PM 527 (1995)

0 Morricone, Ennio (1970). ‘Indagine su un cittadino al di sopra di ogni sospetto’ T Police Movies. Cinevox CIA 5027 (1981).

0 Post, Mike (1974) ‘The Rockford Files’ T Television’s Greatest Hits 70s & 80s. TeeVee Toons TVT 1300 (1990).

3.4.2.7. Soundtrack albums 0 (F)

0 Composer, Forename (Year of record release) [‘Individual track from’] Name of Album [; music from F Name of film if different to that of album (Year of film release, if diffrerent)]. Label, cat. #|; or, if unknown or various artists, |Film name (Release year). Record Label, cat. #|.

Intext reference examples ‘Johnson (1938)’; ‘Morricone (1986)’; ‘2001 (1968)’ would appear in the Reference Appendix as:

— For example —

0 Johnson, W (1938) ‘Grayson & Burgess’ from F Jenkins in Darjeeling (main theme) The Very Best of British Empire Film Themes. BFI First Issues BFIFI 1002 (2019). ~

0 Morricone, Ennio (1986) The Mission. Virgin 2402.

0 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). MGM S 13.

3.4.3. Recordings of classical works 0 m C

0 Composer, Forename: Title or Name of Classical Work (year of first publication / performance / composition). [On album with Different Title to that of Named Work]. mvC Artist(s) performing the work. Label, cat. # (year of record issue, if different to year of work’s first appearance).

— For example —

0 Mozart, Wolfgang A (1779) Sinfonia Concertante for Violin and Viola in E flat major, K364 m Academy of St. Martin in the Fields C Neville Marriner 0 Decca Serenata SA 17 (1982).

0 Mussorgsky, M (1863) Night on a Bare Mountain m London Symphony Orchestra C György Solti. Decca SXL 6263 (1966).

3.4.4. Online audio 0 G H

3.4.4.1. Online audio recordings 0 G

Audio recordings on the internet are listed in the appendix in the same way as other audio recordings (§3.4 - §3.4.3; for streamed audio, see §3.5.4, p. 19). Their publishing details should be either replaced or supplemented by URL references.

— For example —

0 Norman, Monty (1962) c Dr. No, a.k.a. The James Bond Theme Tm John Barry Orchestra G itunes.apple.com/us/artist/john-barry-orchestra/id133904310 [100923].

0 Tagg, Philip (1980) cm Samtal tT SvTV2 G tagg.org/audio/Signatures/Samtal1-160.mp3 [120705].

3.5. Audiovisual references

Video game referencing is presented separately under §3.6 (p. 19, ff.).

3.5.1. General for audiovisual recordings

Intext location is indicated by timecode placement in the source work, for example, ‘the sudden entry of viciously bowed strings at 0:48:24 in Psycho (1960)’.

3.5.2. Audiovisual works on carrier D f F * c etc.

Whether you list dvds (or vhss) by film title (§3.5.2.1) or composer (§3.5.2.2 — or both) depends on the focus of your own text.

3.5.2.1. Videogram listed by title

D or V|Title of production (Year of first release), f Director, F Name[s] of film or TV production and/or distribution company, [* star actor[s], c composer], D (or V) Name of videogram production/distribution company, cat. # or ean/isbn (videogram publication year).

— For example —

D Lagaan (2001) F Set Pictures F*v Aamir Khan f Ashutosh Gowariker c A R Rahman & Javed Akhtar. Columbia Tristar DC 68320 (2003).

D Psycho (1960) fHitchcock FShamley c Bernard Herrmann. Universal 20251 (1999).

V Twin Peaks (1989) F Propaganda Films, Spelling Entertainment;

f David Lynch ctT Angelo Badalmenti. Twin Peaks Volume 2;

V Screen Entertainment SE 9142 (1991).

3.5.2.2. Videogram listed by composer

D Herrmann, Bernard (1960) c Psycho fHitchcock FShamley D Universal 20251 (1999).

D Morricone, Ennio (1986) c The Mission F Goldcrest/Warner f Roland Joffé * Jeremy Irons, Robert De Niro D ntsc Warner 23497 (2003); see also 0 The Mission (soundtrack), Virgin V2402 (1986).

3.5.2.3. Music on DVD

D Artist or Composer [see §3.4.1] (year of orig. composition, if not of recording, else of DVD if same as original, or if compilation of earlier recordings). [‘Subsidiary title’] Main Title. DVD production company [cat. # or EAN/ISBN] (Year of DVD if different to year of original recording).

D Hooker, John Lee (2002) Rare Performances 1960-1984.

Rounder 1-57940-951-2.

D Khachaturian, Aram (1954) (c) ‘Pas de deux of Phrygia and Spartacus’ from ballet Spartacus. tT The Onedin Line (BBC, 1971-80). D Cinema Club (2007).

3.5.3. YouTube references E

3.5.3.1. General

The length of YouTube URLs can be radically reduced by using the unique 11-character code appearing at the end of their absolute URL addresses, preceded by the YouTube icon E. For example:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msM28q6MyfY (42 characters)

can be rendered as simply

E msM28q6MyfY (12 characters).

• Default headword will depend on the focus of your text (composer, artist, title of song, film, TV broadcast, etc.).

• Intext location indication is by timing, e.g. ‘the change of key and the start of the first chorus at 1:07 in Police (1980)’.

3.5.3.2. YouTube reference appendix examples: primarily audio 0 E

0 Lara, Agustín (1932) c Granada n New York: Peer International;

v Luciano Pavarotti (1993) E 1X8e8rBHR7c [111218].

0 Police (1980) Don’t Stand So Close To Me. A&M AMS 7564;

E j75tJNYwWkY [130510].

3.5.3.3. YouTube reference appendix examples: audiovisual F/ t E

t Médecins de Nuit (1978) Title Sequences Tc Vladimir Kosma (Episode ‘Un plat cuisiné’) F Antenne 2/Téléfrance (1980); f Peter Kassovitz. E d4B6peD1vw8 [140114].

F The Mission (1986) ‘Fav Scenes, The Mission’ (from end of Rodrigo’s penance to building the mission). c E. Morricone *Robert De Niro *Jeremy Irons f Roland Joffé. E dzDj4l_HmJE [150920].

3.5.4. Off-air recording w 0 t

When recording off-air from radio or TV, as well as from online streaming, it is important to note date and broadcast channel. If the material, audio or audiovisual, is unavailable as a recording in published form, if it is not posted as a recording on the internet, and if access to the recording is important to your text, you should consider posting any relevant recorded extracts on line.

t 1959: The Year that Changed Jazz w BBC4 [120218].

0 Abba (1974) Honey Honey w Sveriges Radio P3 [740405].

t God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen (c Eng. trad.) v Choir of King’s College Cambridge, Carol Service, 2008 E IDvEwC0wZ-I [120909].

3.6. Games referencing g

3.6.1. General comments

This section is based on correspondence received from Karen Collins in response to requests I sent her for information about video game referencing practices. ‘There are no set standards within the emerging area of game studies with regards to referencing’…, Collins replied. However, there seems to be agreement on at least two points.

• Appendix entries are sorted alphabetically by developer.

• Intext references are formatted |(Developer, Year)|, for example:

‘… a technique first used in Final Fantasy X (Square Co., Ltd., 2001).’

3.6.2. Carrier-stored games

Reference appendix entries should have the format

gGame Developer (Year) Title [Platform]. Release Nation and Publisher|, for example:

g Atari (1980) BattleZone [Arcade]. USA: Atari.

g BioWare (2007) Mass Effect [Xbox 360]. USA: Microsoft.

3.6.3. Online games

In addition to data set out in §3.6.2, it is useful, for similar reasons to those given under Off-air recordings (§3.5.4, p. 19), if online games references include the place where and the date (here formatted yymmdd) on which you played the game, for example:

g Blizzard Entertainment (2004) World of Warcraft [online OSX], Irvine, CA; USA: Blizzard Entertainment, 100112.

g OnRamp Arts (2002) Tropical America [online PC], Los Angeles, CA; USA: OnRamp Arts, 030915.

g Popstar South (2014) Petty Theft Bicycle XI (version 1.0.351.3) [online Windows]. UK: Popstar Games; played Leeds (UK),150929; captured extract at G tagg.org/Clips/GTA5-Animals1.mp4. [151001].~

3.6.4. Focus on sound/music personnel

‘Many games’, writes Collins, ‘can have a team of sound designers and composers working on a single game. Usually, however, there will be a lead composer and a lead sound designer.’ An intext reference to music in World of Warcraft (Blizzard, 2004), composed by Jason Hayes, for example, might look like this:

‘The music in World of Warcraft (Blizzard, 2004: Jason Hayes et al.) was described by one informant as “wicked awesome”.’

3.6.5. Reference to sound events

Since games unfold at different speeds in an infinite variety of ways depending on the gamer’s skill, preferences, etc., timecode cannot be used to reference sonic events in the source work.

3.6.5.1. Randomised sound events

‘When discussing specific sonic events, it is recommended that authors describe the event (e.g. “player MK47”). If the game is played on a PC, typically the sound and music files can be accessed and the actual file name (asset name) used. However, in many games, sonic events are randomized (even broken down into sub-events which are also randomized) and the event itself will always be different’…

‘In these instances’, concludes Collins, ‘the only guarantee of accuracy of description is to screen-record the event and share that with readers.’ That brief recording can then be posted on line and referenced, with relevant url and screen-recording date, in the appendix under the entry of the game from which the event was captured.

3.6.5.2. Constant audio updates

‘Since a game can be changed on your device… potentially every time you log in and play, the previous version of the game itself is no longer stored anywhere for any referencing. So, for instance, if I have Peggle Blast on my iPad, and if PopCap (Peggle’s makers) push out a new track that replaces a song previously in the game, I no longer have access to that song… Someone new downloading the game would only get the latest version, and would not have access to the previous version with the original song.’

To overcome this problem, Collins advises that details of game version (e.g. ‘1.03’) and actual date played be included in the game’s listing in the Reference Appendix (see example ‘Popstar (2014)’, below). That’s because those details constitute the only accurate way to reference a game with DLC (downloadable content) that may change with each iteration.31

Similarly, as recommended under §3.6.5.1, the only way to ensure that your readers get to see/hear the events you’re actually referring to, rather than what happens in whichever version they may have downloaded, is to audiovisually capture (screen-record) those events and to post them on line. They should be referenced in the appendix with the relevant url and screen-recording date under the entry of the game from which the events were captured.

For example, the intext reference

‘…as in the “Animals Attack” segments of Petty Theft Bicycle XI (Popstar, 2014)’

refers to ‘g Popstar (2014)’ in the Reference Appendix. That listing in the appendix includes not just the version number and platform you used (‘v. 1.0.351.3’ and ‘online Windows’) but also: [1] where and when you played the game (‘UK, 150929’); [2] the URL of events you captured on that occasion (‘G tagg.org/Clips/GTA5-Animals1.mp4’) and [3] when you last accessed that video file (‘[151001]’).

4. Using the symbol fonts

To use the symbol fonts found in this text, proceed as follows.

1. Visit G tagg.org/zmisc/FontKeys.html.

2. Under section 1 (‘Four useful home-compiled fonts’), locate the Appendix symbols font XPTSymbols1.ttf.

3. Click ‘Download XPTSymbols1.ttf’ to download the actual font to your computer.

4. Install the font XPTSymbols1.ttf on your computer.

5. Click also ‘keyboard layout’ to view the PDF file showing which keys produce which symbols when the font is installed on your computer. You may find it convenient to download that file, too.

6. To produce, for example, 0 in your text, type ‘0’ (zero) and change the font of that ‘0’ to XPTSymbols1: it will appear as 0. Using the keyboard layout file and XPTSymbols1 you’ll be able in the same way to change ‘G’ to G, ‘b’ to b, ‘E’ to E, ‘F’ to F, ‘f’ to f and so on.

5. Reference appendix for this document

For legend of icons, see p. 8. Please note that entries marked ~ are entirely fictitious.

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n Mozart, Wolfgang A (1779) Sinfonia Concertante for Violin and Viola in E flat major, K364. London: Eulenburg (ed. R. Gerber, 1935); m Academy of St. Martin in the Fields C Neville Marriner m Stephen Shingles [vla.] m Alan Loveday [vln.] 0 Decca Serenata SA 17 (1982).

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g Popstar South (2014) Petty Theft Bicycle XI (version 1.0.351.3) [online Windows]. UK: Popstar Games; played Leeds (UK), 2015-09-29; captured extract at G tagg.org/Clips/GTA5-Animals1.mp4. [151001]. ~

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RefAppxs.fm. 2015-09-29, 11:30